CRANIOLA        
            

                          From early in his medical studies, Leach was interested in cranioscopy, which can simply be described as the study of the shape,
                          size, and other features of the skull. But during Leach’s time, it was the beginning of phrenology, where the external shape
                          of the skull could reveal characteristics of an individual’s personality and their mental and emotional capacities. Cranioscopy
                          was initiated by Franz Joseph Gall, a German neuroanatomist and physiologist. Gall's most important collaborator was
                          Johann Spurzheim, who disseminated their ideas in Great Britain. Although Gall was a pioneer in the theory of brain
                          localization, cranioscopy's basic tenets were later proven to be unscientific and unsupported by factual evidence.

                          Cranioscopy was not just a fleeting interest for Elford Leach. During the winter of 1811-1812, he was preparing medical
                          and natural history entries for the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, which included the topics of Cranioscopy and Crustaceology.
                          He was also working a paper to present to the Wernerian Society on a design for a new craniometer. 1  In a letter to
                          Robert Jameson, Leach wrote, “You are right in supposing me to be a Spurzheimite, being one of the elect and true
                          believers in the basis of his doctrines, although not convinced of the truth of the whole, Dr. S. having as is usual with new
                          Theories, carried it too far.”  Leach eventually came to know Spurzheim and referred to him as “my much abused good
                          friend.” In 1820, when the first phrenological society in Europe was formed in Edinburgh, Leach became a member. 2

                          Leucosia craniolaris and Crania craniolaris are the examples I used for the the connections between skulls and the names of genus
                          and species. The term craniolaris means ‘like the cranium.’ The species Crania Craniolaris 3 and Leucosia Craniolaris literally
                          Skull like a skull’ and ‘White like a skull’ respectively.

                          Leach’s connections to these genera can be found in his published texts. A description of Leucosia craniolaris is given in the
                          third volume of his Zoological Miscellany in 1817 4 and the genus Crania appears in his Synopsis of the Mollusca of Great Britain.

                          As an additional note, after Leach had moved into his residence at the British Museum, he continued his earlier work on the
                          comparative anatomy of the skull. This was not part of his museum duties, so he set aside a small room in his apartment for
                          skulls – which he referred to as the ‘Scullery.’ 5 With such an avid interest in skulls and cranioscopy, perhaps Leach used
                          the term ‘Craniola’ as the source of the anagrams.


                                   1 Harrison, p. 134
                                   2 Ibid. p.279
                                   3 There are many legends associated with Crania Craniolaris, or the “Brattingsborg pennies.” Many medieval legends refer to the occurrence of these "pennies" on Ivö Island
                                           in lake Ivö. According to one legend, at the beginning of the 13th century an archbishop spent his last days on the island of Ivö, in the castle of Brattingsborg - the
                                           cellar of which was about 2 kilometers southeast. One day he was informed that warriors had stolen a large sum of money from the castle. The warriors spent the
                                           night gambling and carousing in the cellar. The archbishop cursed this money and the following morning the warriors were stunned to find that the coins had turned
                                           into stones with a laughing death's-head on them. Actually they are valves of the fossil brachiopod Crania craniolaris originally described by Linnaeus as Anomia craniolaris.
                                           Christian C. EMIG Carnets de Géologie/Notebooks on Geology-Article 2009/08(CG2009_A08) 1 Nummulus brattenburgensis and Crania craniolaris (Brachiopoda, Craniidae) p. 2
                                   4 Harrison, p.21
                                   5 Ibid. p.421.  Leach also developed an interest in bats and devoted another room in his apartment to housing these specimens. In another naming game, he called this room
                                           the ‘Battery.’