CARNIOLA           
             

                         Carniola was a historical region that comprised parts of what is now Slovenia. During Leach’s lifetime, the rule of Carniola
                         had passed from French control to the Austrians.

                         The French revolutionary troops occupied Carniola from 1805 to 1806. Through the Treaty of Vienna, Carniola became part
                         of the Illyrian provinces of France (1809–1814), with Laibach (Ljubljana) as its capital. In 1816, with the defeat of Napoleon,
                         Carniola (as Gubernium Laibach) and became part of the Kingdom of Illyria, under the rule of Austrian Emperor Francis I.
                         Carniola remained part of the Austrian Kingdom until 1849.

                         Leach could have been inspired by the current political events around him to use the word Carniola for his anagram. However,
                         if this was not the case, there is another link between Leach and Carniola – the work of physician and naturalist, Giovanni
                         Antonio Scopoli.

                         Scopoli was considered by some to be the "Linnaeus of the Austrian Empire". In 1763, he published the Entomologia Carniolica,
                         in which he described the plants and insects of Carniola.  In his Entomologia, Scopoli includes descriptions of oil-beetles of the
                         genus Meloë. Leach had collected oil-beetles since he was 14 and by 1809 his collection contained all known British species. 1 
                         I would assume that Leach would have had knowledge of his work from early on in his career, but verifiable proof of his
                         familiarity with Scopoli can be found later in The Entomologist’s Useful Compendium or An Introduction to the Knowledge of British
                         Insects
(1819), written by George Samouelle with Elford Leach’s help and contributions.   In their list of quoted authors, Scopoli
                         is mentioned on page 15.

                         An additional connection between Leach and Scopoli comes from another instance of a Leach anagram. In 1815, Leach named
                         a genus of tree kingfishers Dacelo, which was an anagram of the river kingfisher genus, Alcedo (Linnaeus in 1758). 2 Nearly
                         twenty years earlier, in 1786, Scopoli had named a species of tree kingfishers, Halcyon Albiventris. In reviewing the existing
                         species, Leach must have come across Scopoli's kingfisher. Another species references both Scopoli and Carniola -
                         Scopolia carniolica
, commonly called the henbane bell. It was first described by Linnaeus and originally named in honor of
                         Scopoli as Hyoscyamus scopolia. Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin later classified it in the genus Scopolia.  Scopoli himself mentioned
                         this flowering plant in his book, Flora Carniolica. 3



                                 1 Ibid. p.97
                                 2 As with the ‘Caroline’ anagram, this game continued as well. Horsfield named another genus of kingfishers with the anagram Lacedo in 1821.
                                 3 Another possible connection or proof that Leach was informed of Carniola comes from a book by William Archibald Cadell.  Cadell published
                                        A Journey in Carniola, Italy, and France in the Years 1817, 1818, which contained observations on the language, geography, history,
                                        natural history, science, arts and agriculture of those regions. Both Leach and Cadell had been members of the Wernerian Natural History
                                        Society of Edinburgh since 1811 – elected within months of each other.